You may see this problem while working with Chrome on Android Emulators (on Windows).
I specifically faced this problem on AVD with INTEL HAXM Virtualization enabled. I tried different versions of Chrome and saw this issue every time.
"Critical Functionality required to run chrome is missing; either your Chrome installation is incomplete, or not compatible with this version of Android."
After trying few random combinations with its RAM, Heap size and processor I finally reached to the conclusion that if you use Intel HAXM virtualization and keep processor as Intel Atom for a AVD, it gives error while launching Chrome.
I changed the processor to ARM (armeabi-v7a) and it worked for me.